Olive scale or black scale. Olivier named this species oleae in , presumably because it was found on olive trees. It is one of the "H" scales that have ridges. Abstract. Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations were studied and compared in citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea. Taxonomy Saissetia oleae oleae: scientific and common names, classification, synonymy, taxonomic tree.
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Economic Importance Back to Top Black scales feed by attaching to the leaves and branches of their host plant and sucking the sap from saissetia oleae the plant tissue.
Saissetia oleae oleae (Olivier, ) - Taxonomy
Depending on the severity of the scale infestation, the resulting damage to the plant may vary. As the scales feed, they exude saissetia oleae sticky, sugary substance, called honeydew, as a waste product.
The honeydew falls from the feeding site and coats the leaves and fruit of the host plant or nearby surfaces, which encourages growth of sooty mold Saissetia oleae 4.
Sooty mold is a black fungus that grows in a thin layer over the substrate where honeydew is present. Honeydew can attract ants that feed on the sugary substance.
Saissetia oleae presence of ants is a good indicator saissetia oleae scale infestation.
Sooty saissetia oleae on cultivated olive Olea europaea L. Biological Control Back to Top The primary method of black scale management is biological control. Encyrtidaealso native to South Africa, have been released for control of black scale in olive and citrus fields Figure 5.
Though closely related, parasitoids differ in saissetia oleae life histories.
Metaphycus helvolus attacks second or third instar black scale nymphs whereas Metaphycus lounsburyi parasitizes third instar nymphs and adult females. These parasitoids are typically released for augmentative control of the black scale, saissetia oleae some established populations have saissetia oleae reported.
Exit holes in adult black scales, Saissetia oleae Olivierindicating the presence of the parasites that aid in black scale control. A southern California survey of primary and secondary parasitoids on Sassetia oleae found that parasitoid abundance varied by location, but that the same species were found throughout the state Lampson and Morse, These include four primary species: In the coastal, saissetia oleae, and interior regions of southern California, the most abundant parasitoid observed was a Metaphycus species.
Eggs remain under the female scale. Eclosion saissetia oleae after an incubation period of days. Populations composed mainly of nymphal stages and a few young females can be detected simultaneously during September.
Badly fouled saissetia oleae may be dropped prematurely. The older insects are usually quite easy to see as dark grey or brown-to-black lumps on leaf undersides and stems.
Prevention and control Regulatory Control Planting material of host-plant species of S. A phytosanitary certificate should guarantee absence of the pest from consignments of either planting material or produce.
The limbs of each insect are short and saissetia oleae hidden beneath the body, and eyes are only saissetia oleae in younger specimens with pale bodies.
Early instars are difficult to distinguish from those of other species of soft scale.
Olive scale (Saissetia oleae)
Adult females lack wings; they are mm across, approximately circular in outline, fairly flat, yellow or grey and granular in appearance initially, becoming hemispherical and dark grey or brown to black and matt with saissetia oleae Gill, Population dynamics of the Mediterranean black scale, Saissetia oleae Oliv.
Occurrence of a yellow form. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa Control of Saissetia oleae Hom. Observations on life cycle of saissetia oleae scale Saissetia oleae Bern on citrus and olive trees in Israel.