HISTORY OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION PDF DOWNLOAD

This wikibook concerns about the political, economic, scientific, and cultural developments of the Islamic world throughout the centuries. For the history of Islamic. Islam civilization is based on the value of education, which both the Islamic history and culture can be traced through the written records. Overview. In the year , according to the Christian calendar, one of the more momentous events in Western Civilization's history took place. In an isolated.


HISTORY OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION PDF DOWNLOAD

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HISTORY OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION PDF DOWNLOAD


History of Islam - Wikipedia

Although the office of caliph retained an aura of religious authority, it laid no claim to prophecy. To be close to the poor, he lived in a simple history of islamic civilization hut without doors and walked the streets every evening. After consulting with the poor, Umar established the Bayt al-mal[37] [38] [39] history of islamic civilization welfare institution for the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.

The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era.

Umar also introduced child benefit for the children and pensions for the elderly.

History of Islamic Civilizations

The western parts of the Byzantine empire conquered by Arabs Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, who lived as religious minorities and were taxed while Muslims paid "Zakat" to finance the Byzantine—Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests.

Since the Constitution of Medinadrafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammadthe Jews and the Christians continued to use their own laws and had their own judges. As the Arabic language is written without vowels, speakers of different Arabic dialects and other languages recited the Quran with phonetic variations that could alter the meaning of the text.

When Uthman ibn Affan became aware of this, he ordered a standard copy of the Quran to be prepared. Begun during his reign, the compilation of the Quran history of islamic civilization finished some time between andand copies were sent out to the different centers of history of islamic civilization expanding Islamic empire.

However, after Muhammad's death, the old history of islamic civilization differences between the Arabs started to resurface. Each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in their area. When Uthman was assassinated inAli ibn Abi Taliba cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, assumed the position of caliph and moved the capital to Kufa in Iraq.

HISTORY OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION PDF DOWNLOAD

Muawiyah I, the governor of Syria, and Marwan I demanded arrest history of islamic civilization the culprits. Marwan I manipulated every one and created conflict, which resulted in the first civil war the "First Fitna". Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in Six months later inin the interest of peace, History of islamic civilization son Hasanmade a peace treaty with Muawiyah I.

In the Hasan—Muawiya treatyHasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he would be just to the people and not establish a dynasty after his death.

He was killed in the Battle of Karbala the same year, in history of islamic civilization event still mourned by Shia on the Day of Ashura. InArab armies conquered Kabul[73] and in pushed into the Maghreb.

History of Islam

Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad caliphate The Umayyad dynasty or Ommiadswhose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shamsthe great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph, ruled from to Although the Umayyad family came from the city of History of islamic civilizationDamascus was the capital.

Muawiyah I moved his capital to Damascus from Medinawhich led to profound changes in the empire.

In the same way, at a later date, the transfer of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad marked the accession of a new family to power. As the state grew, the state expenses increased.