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Inca bridge on the Apurimac River Since ancient times humans have been consciously aware of stress inside materials.

Until the 17th century, the understanding of stress was largely intuitive and empirical; and yet it resulted in some surprisingly sophisticated technology, like the composite bow and glass blowing. Ancient and medieval architects did develop some geometrical methods and simple formulas to compute the proper sizes of pillars and beams, but the scientific understanding of stress became possible only after the necessary tools were invented in the 17th and 18th centuries: Definition[ edit esfuerzo biaxial Stress is defined as the force across a "small" boundary per unit area of that boundary, for all orientations of the boundary.

Following the basic premises of continuum mechanics, stress is a macroscopic concept. Namely, the particles considered in its esfuerzo biaxial and analysis should be just small enough to be treated as homogeneous in composition and state, but still large enough to ignore quantum effects and the detailed motions of molecules.

Stress (mechanics) - Wikipedia

Thus, the force between two particles is actually the average of a very large number of atomic forces between their molecules; and physical quantities like mass, velocity, and forces that act through the bulk of three-dimensional bodies, like esfuerzo biaxial, are assumed to be smoothly distributed over them.

The stress across a surface element yellow disk is the esfuerzo biaxial that the material on one side top ball exerts on the material on the other side bottom balldivided by the area of the surface.

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Quantitatively, the stress is expressed by the Cauchy traction vector T defined as the traction force F between adjacent parts of the material across an imaginary separating surface S, esfuerzo biaxial by the area of S.

In a solidor in a esfuerzo biaxial of viscous liquidthe force F may not be perpendicular to S; hence the stress across a surface must be regarded a vector quantity, not a scalar.

Moreover, the direction and magnitude generally depend on the orientation of S.

Thus the stress state of the material must be esfuerzo biaxial by a tensorcalled the Cauchy stress tensor ; which is a linear function that relates the normal vector n of a surface S to the stress T across S. Even within a homogeneous body, the stress tensor may vary from place to place, and may change over time; therefore, the stress within a material is, in general, a time-varying tensor field.

Normal and shear stress[ edit ] Further information: The vector T may be regarded as the sum of two components: Units[ edit ] The dimension of stress is that of pressure esfuerzo biaxial, and therefore esfuerzo biaxial coordinates are commonly measured in the same units as pressure: Because mechanical stresses easily exceed a million Pascals, MPa, which stands for megapascal, is a common unit of stress.

The cracks are the result of brief but intense stress created when the semi-molten piece is briefly dipped in water.


Some of these agents like gravity, changes in temperature and phase esfuerzo biaxial, and electromagnetic fields act on the bulk of the material, varying continuously with position esfuerzo biaxial time. Other agents like external loads and friction, ambient pressure, and contact forces may create stresses and forces that are concentrated on certain surfaces, lines, or points; and possibly also on very short time intervals as in the impulses due to collisions.

In general, the stress distribution in the body is expressed as a piecewise continuous function of space and time.

Stress (mechanics)

Conversely, stress is usually correlated with various effects on the material, possibly including changes in physical properties like birefringencepolarizationand permeability.

The imposition of stress by an external agent usually creates some strain deformation in the esfuerzo biaxial, even if it is too small to be detected. In esfuerzo biaxial solid material, such strain will in turn generate an internal elastic stress, analogous to the reaction force of a stretched springtending to restore the material to its original undeformed state.

Fluid materials liquids, gases and plasmas by definition can only oppose deformations that would change their volume.

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However, if the deformation is changing with time, even in fluids there will usually be some viscous stress, opposing that change. The relation between stress and its effects and causes, including deformation and rate of change of deformation, can be quite complicated although a linear approximation may be adequate in practice if the quantities are small enough.

Stress esfuerzo biaxial exceeds certain strength limits esfuerzo biaxial the material will result in permanent deformation such as plastic flowfracturecavitation or even change its crystal structure and chemical composition. Simple stress[ edit ] In some situations, the stress within a body may adequately be described by a single number, or by a single vector a number and a direction.

Three such simple stress situations, that are often encountered in engineering design, are the uniaxial normal stress, the simple shear stress, and the isotropic normal stress.

If the system is in equilibrium and not changing with time, and the weight of the bar can be neglected, then through each transversal section of the bar the top part must pull on the bottom part with the same force, F with continuity esfuerzo biaxial the full cross-sectional area, A.